Thursday, December 27, 2012

Western Cemetery of Giza : Mastaba 2101


Mastaba 2101 (Mastaba 2100-II)

Name of owner
Nensedjerkai / Nensezerkai / Nensezerka  -> N-sḏr-k3.j
woman

detail of plan of Cemetery, adapted from Reisner GIZA Necropolis I, map 5 - drawing by Roth Bigio

Titles 1
mt-nṯr Ḥwt-Ḥr -> prophetess of Hathor

ḥmt-nṯr Ḫwfw -> prophetess of Khufu

ẖkrt nswt -> King's adorner

z3t nswt -> King's daughter

When Nensezerkai is represented with his father, only the z3t nswt title is used.

1 No titles are allocated to Nensezerkai in the mastaba of his father (it's the same thing for all daughters of Merib - only his sons have a title).


Family links
Daughter of Mr-jb.j (Merib – Mastaba G2100-I)


Dating Mastaba
Second half of fourth dynasty : between Rekhaef and Menkaoure

The first phase of construction of the Mastaba is practically contemporary of the Mastaba of Merib (between Redjedef and Rekhaef).

According to the Egyptologist H. Junker, Merib would have built the Mastaba of his daughter - hypothesis which can be envisaged if Nensezerkai
died prematurely.

The second phase of construction integrate a chapel with entry, pillared portico and open court.

According to certain iconographic and architectural elements, this phase can be dated from the reign of Rekhaef or his successor.

FM - after Mastaba of Nucleus Cemetery 2100 part 1 - fig 5.5 -
 G2100-II plan; after Junker Giza 2, fig 1

Architecture

Mastaba
It is a grave in the modest dimensions built altogether by grey limestone (Mastaba of type 9a 1 according to the typology of the Egyptologist Reisner - stone-built mastaba).

It is attached (on its North side) to the mastaba of Merib.

Dimensions of the mastaba : 8,85 m * 8 m = 70,8 sq.m for a height of 5 m.

It consists of two shafts ("A" and "B" - dimensions : 1,6 m * 1,6 m).

The shaft "A" (depth = 5,12 m) contains a funeral chamber (type 4b 1 - dimensions 3,4 m * 3 m for a height of 2 m) with sarcophagus.

A Skeleton dismenbered and scattered by thieves and animals bones from meat offering were found.


Mastaba of Nucleus Cemetery 2100 part 1 - fig 5.17 - G2100-II, west-east section, looking north; after Junker, Giza 2 p 106 fig 6



The shaft "B "was not finished - it seems that it was planned and built before the shaft "A".


Chapel
An outside chapel (type 8e 1 ) recovers the East side of the facade of the mastaba. It 
consists of a offering - room, an pillared portico and a open-court.

Dimensions offering - room : 9,5 m * 3,6 m = 34,2 sq.m for a height of 2,83 m.

Dimensions pillared portico with open-court : 6 m * 5,45 m = 32,7 sq.m - The height of the court is 2,5 m.

Offering - room

We go into this room by a door (opening from left to right).


It contains two false doors (one in the South and one in the North). 
A window has been cut high on the South side. Its aperture widens to reach the chapel interior.

The "Serdab" (dimensions : 1 * 0,75 m) is situated between the two false doors (on the superior assizes). It is visible when we go into the room.

Pillared portico

It contains two pillars of "square" type (dimensions : 0,50 m * 0,50 m for a height of 2,5 m).


This portico is covered. 
To reach the portico, we have to climb some steps.

Open - court

It is a closed court. A door (East side - opening from left to right) allows to enter to the funeral complex.


To resume, total area of the mastaba : 70,8 + 34,2 + 32,7 = 137,7 sq.m.

1 for more informations on the types of Mastabas and additions, Reisner GN 1



Decoration 1
You will find attached the places where there is of the text :


  • Exterior architrave (West end of the courtyard)
transliteration :
ḥtp ḏỉ nswt ḥtp (ḏỉ) ỉnpw nb ṯȝ-ḏsr ḫnty sḥ nṯr krs.t(ỉ) =s (m)
ẖrt-nṯr m smyt ỉmntt ỉȝw(.tỉ) nfr wrt ḫp=s ḥr wȝwt nfr(w)t ḫpp.t ỉmȝḫ(w)
t ỉm=s nfrt pr n=s ḫrw wp rnpt ḏḥwtt tpy rnpt wȝg ḥb Skr ḥb wr
rkḥ wȝḥ ˁḫ prt Mỉnw ȝbd sȝḏ tpy ȝbd tpy smdt ḥb nb rˁ nb n sȝt nswt ẖkrt
nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ šš ḫȝ mmḫt ḫȝ t ḥnḳt psn(?) ḫȝ

translation :
"A gift which the king, and a gift which Anubis, lord of the necropolis, foremost of the divine booth, give, that she may be buried (in) the necropolis in the western desert, having achieved a very great old age, that she might travel upon the beautiful ways upon which a revered one travels well. May invocation offerings be made for her (on) the new year’s festival, the festival of Thoth, the first of the year festival, the wag-festival, the festival of Sokar, the great flame festival, the festival of the brazier, the procession of Min festival, the monthly sadj-festival, the beginning of the month festival, the beginning of the half-month festival, and every festival every day, for the king’s daughter, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai. A thousand alabaster vessels, a thousand pieces of cloth, a thousand quantities of bread, beer, and cakes."

  • Interior (East) face of northern column and southern column of portico
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt nbt ỉmȝḫ ḫr nṯr ˁȝ Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"King’s daughter, royal ornamented, possessor veneration under the great god, Nensedjerkai"

  • Interior (West) face of northern column of portico
transliteration :
sȝ nswt ḫtmty nṯr ḥˁw Mrỉb sȝt=f mrt=f ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"King’s son, seal-bearer of the god of the fleet, Merib. His daughter, whom he loves, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai"

  • Interior (West) face of southern column of portico
transliteration :
smr wˁty sḥd bȝ nṯrw kȝp(w)-nswt sȝt=f mrt=f ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"Sole companion, inspector of (the ship) “Might of the gods,” Kapunisut. His daughter, whom he loves, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai"

  • Inner architrave over chapel entrance
transliteration :
ḥtp ḏỉ nswt ḥtp (ḏỉ) ˁỉnpw ḫnty sḥ nṯr ḳrs.t(ỉ)=s ẖrt-nṯr m smyt
ỉmntt ỉȝw(.tỉ) nfr wrt ḫr nṯr ˁȝ pr n=s ḫrw wp rnpt ḏḥwtt tpy rnpt wȝg
ḥb nb n sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ šs mnḫt ḫȝ t ḥnḳt pȝt ḫȝ

translation :
"A gift which the king, and a gift which Anubis, foremost of the divine booth, give, that she might be buried (in) the necropolis in the western desert, having achieved a very great old age, before the great god. May invocation offerings be made for her (on) the new year’s festival, the festival of THOTH, the first of the year festival, the wag-festival, and every festival, for the king’s daughter, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai. A thousand quantities of alabaster, and cloth, a thousand quantities of bread, beer, and cakes"

  • Drum over chapel entrance
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt ḥm(t)-nṯr ḥwt-ḥr ḥm(t)-nṯr ḫwfw Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"King’s daughter, the royal ornamented, priestess of Hathor, priestess of Khufu, Nensedjerkai"

  • West wall, south false door architrave
transliteration :
ḥtp ḏỉ nswt ḥtp (ḏỉ) ỉnpw ḫnty sḥ nṯr ḳrs.t(ỉ)=s (m) ẖrt-nṯr m smyt ỉmntt ỉȝw.t(ỉ) nfr wrt nbt ỉmȝḫ ḫr nṯr ˁȝ sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏḏr-kȝỉỉ šs ḫȝ mnḫt ḫȝ t ḥnḳt ḫȝ psn ḫȝ

translation :
"A gift which the king, and a gift which Anubis, foremost of the divine booth, give, that she might be burried (in) the necropolis in the western desert, having achieved a very great old age, a possessor of veneration before the great god, the king's daughter, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai. A thousand alabaster vessels, a thousant pieces of cloth, a thousant quantities of bread and beer, and a thousand cakes"

  • West wall, south false door tablet
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ snṯr sṯỉ-ḥb ḥknw sfṯ nẖnm twȝt ḥȝtt ˁš ḥȝ(tt) ṯḥnw wȝḏ wnḫw sr ḫȝ ṯ(rp) ḫȝ ḥry-ḏbˁ ḫȝ šs mnḫt ḫȝ ḫȝ ḥnḳt ḫȝ

translation :
"King's daughter, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai. Incense, festival perfume, hekenu-oil, sefetj-oil, nekhnum-oil, tuat-oil, best cedar oil, best Libyan oil, green eye-paint, roll of cloth, a thousand greylag geese, a thousand white-fronted geese, a thousand suckled calves, a thousand alabaster vessels, a thousand (pieces of) cloth, a thousand loaves of bread, a thousand jars of beer"

  • West wall, south false door lintel
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt ḥm(t)-nṯr ḥwt-ḥr Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"The king's daughter, royal ornamented, priestess of Hathor, Nendsedjerkai"

  • West wall, south false door drum
transliteration :
ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"The royal ornamented Nensedjerkai"

  • West wall, south false door, left(south) jamb
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ ḥm-kȝ [...]

translation :
"The king's daughter, the royal ornamented Nensedjerkai, the funerary priest [...] - ankh. The funerary priest Rahotep"

  • West wall, south false door, right(north) jamb
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ ḥm-kȝ Dfỉ ḥm-kȝ Nỉ-ˁnḫ-ẖnm

translation :
"The king's daughter, the royal ornamented Nensedjerkai, the funerary priest Defi. The funerary priest Niankhkhnum"

  • West wall, north false door architrave
transliteration :
ḥtp ḏỉ nswt ḥtp (ḏỉ) ỉnpw ḫnty sḥ nṯr ḳrs.t(ỉ)=s ẖrt-nṯr m smyt ỉmntt ỉȝw.t(ỉ) nfr wrt nbt ỉmȝḫ ḫr nṯr ˁȝ sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ šs ḫȝ mnḫt ḫȝ t ḥnḳt psn ḫȝ

translation :
"A gift which the king, and a gift which Anubis, foremost of the divine booth, give, that she might be burried (in) the necropolis in the western desert, having achieved a very great old age, a possessor of veneration before the great god, the king's daughter, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai. A thousand alabaster vessels, a thousand pieces of cloth, a thousand quantities of bread, beer, and cakes"

  • West wall, north false door tablet
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ snṯr sṯỉ-ḥb ḥknw sfṯ nẖnm twȝt ḥȝtt ˁš ḥȝ(tt) ṯḥnw wȝḏ wnḫw ḫȝ sr ḫȝ ṯ(rp) ḫȝ ḥry-ḏbˁ ḫȝ šs ḫȝ mnḫt ḫȝ t ḥnḳt ḫȝ

translation :
"King's daughter, the royal ornamented, Nensedjerkai. Incense, festival perfume, hekenu-oil, sefetj-oil, nekhnum-oil, tuat-oil, best cedar oil, best Libyan oil, green eye-paint, a thousand pieces of cloth, a thousand greylag geese, a thousand white-fronted geese, a thousand suckled calves, a thousand alabaster vessels, a thousand (pieces of) cloth, a thousand quantities of bread and beer"

  • West wall, north false door lintel
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt ḥm(t)-nṯr ḥwt-ḥr Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"The king's daughter, royal ornamented, priestess of Hathor, Nendsedjerkai"

  • West wall, north false door drum
transliteration :
ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ

translation :
"The royal ornamented Nensedjerkai"

  • West wall, north false door left (south) jamb
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ ḥm-kȝ Mry ḥm-kȝ Wr-k 

translation :
"The king's daughter, the royal ornamented Nensedjerkai, the funerary priest Mery. The funerary priest Werka"

  • West wall, north false door right (north) jamb
transliteration :
sȝt nswt ẖkrt nswt Nn-sḏr-kȝỉ ḥm-kȝ Nỉ-ptḥ ḥm-kȝ Wr-bȝw-pt

translation :
"The king's daughter, the royal ornamented Nensedjerkai, the funerary priest Niptah. The funerary priest Werbauptah"

1 This text is translated by Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature 1, pp. 15–16, and more recently by Strudwick, Texts from the Pyramid Age, pp. 389– 90 (text 287). See also Junker, Gîza 2, p. 115, fig. 7.


Bibliography
- Porter Moss III part 1 p 72
- M. BAUD « Famille royale et pouvoir sous l'ancien empire » tome 1 (p 40-41), tome 2 (p 473-474)
- JG II, p 97 – 121
- Reisner GN 1
Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature 1
Strudwick, Texts from the Pyramid Age
- Peter Der Manuelian « Mastaba of Nucleus Cemetery 2100 part 1 »

Useful link3D Giza Project



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Wednesday, December 19, 2012

The Western Cemetery of GIZA


It consists of a series of mastabas grouped in different sectors.

The main sectors (or "the heart" of this cemetery) are :

G1200
G2100
G4000

They are a part of "nucleus" cemeteries (according to the Egyptologist Reisner) : the setting-up older in the necropolis.

A later sector (or "in level") near the pyramid of Khoufou : G4900 - G5200

The Egyptologist Reisner synthesized the architecture of these sectors :  typologies were so established (big work, cover, chapel, well, funeral chamber).

Synthesis completed by the Egyptologist Junker (mainly on G4000 and G2100).


The Egyptologist A.M Abu Bakr excavated this cemetery his most western fringe during the 50s (and completed our knowledge). The excavations were pursued by the Egyptologist Z. Hawass from the 90s.


map of "sectors"

The first constructed mastabas benefited probably from the architectural and/or spatial layout planned by the royal project. 

What can explain that certain sectors seem more organized than the others.


The difficulty is to date these mastabas because numerous arrangements (or developments) were operated on several reigns.

A reign = an arrangement (or development) of a part of the necropolis ? or a reign = set of modifications on certain mastabas ?

G1200
We can glimpse two "steps" in construction :
  • initial plan : beginning reign of Khoufou
  • additions during the end of reign of Khoufou-Rekhaef

G2100

The Analysis is less homogeneous than
G1200 - the analyze must be made mastaba by mastaba.

Covered period : IV - V beginning dynasty - "big work" made under Khoufou

G4000

"b
ig work" made under Khoufou.

Lasting made reorganizations : during IV dynasty (mainly for reigns of Rekhaef and Menkaoure)

G4900-G5200
The first works date of at least Rekhaef and seem to go on till the beginning of V dynasty.

So for every character of this cemetery who will be studied ("form" of the Corpus), we would try to establish a dating the most likely (considering the information which we arrange).



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Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Introduction of Old Kingdom Corpus

This Corpus has for first objective to give on this blog, a list of "forms" representing important characters having lived during the Old Kingdom.

These characters had the big privilege to be able to build a funerary monument (accessible privilege only in certain categories of the Egyptian society of this period) or leave a material track that the history did not forget.

Every "form" will contain enough information 
(descriptive, funeral, family, architectonic, titulature, ...) so that we can obtain a global view of the described character.

This information can be updated either by the author of the "form", or by your comments.

This project wants to be evolutionary then not to hesitate to enrich it by your knowledge.

To establish one such Corpus is not easy thing, of this fact it was decided to approach it by "entity" (for example : the i
nterred characters in a necropolis).

This approach should facilitate the construction of the corpus.


The second objective of this new project is to be able to select "forms" of this Corpus on certain criteria to make links on a given theme (example : all the characters who have a title in particular).

This objective can be reached by indexing every "form", to store these indexes in a database and to develop and make accessible an computing tool (multi-search engine - criteria).



The first "entity" on which we are going to be interested is the site of GIZA.

The necropolis of GIZA is a vast necropolis used mainly during the Old Kingdom.

own work created in Inkscape. Windrose made by Brosen -  MesserWoland 

We distinguish four main cemeteries in this necropolis, the east cemetery, the western cemetery, the south cemetery and the central cemetery.

We are going to be interested in the important characters (and numerous) of this site.

That the adventure begins..



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Monday, December 3, 2012

The Hieroglyphs of Medinet Habou !

The temple of million years of Ramses III has a "special" feature : its hieroglyphs are engraved in "hollow" - a rather deep "hollow".

What are the reasons ?

source - Fabrice MAUPIN (c) 2004
An advanced hypothesis is that by engraving them with a deep "hollow", we can avoid the hammering and/or the ursurpation.

Ramses III had it can be consciousness and wished to leave with the offspring an unchanging monument.


Another hypothesis concerns the artistic sense : the depth created by hieroglyphs allows lighting effects. 

Hieroglyphs could have been arranged in the various rooms of the temple with the aim of a "solar" illumination. 

This solar illumination had it a religious symbolism ?

The purpose of a temple of the millions of years was to have of living on the Pharaoh a place of worship of king deified, associated with Amon, the main Theban divinity. 

With this kind of temple, the royal function was so glorified and excited.

A king "worried" that the future generations is not of doubt on the owner of the temple or / and "worried" of glorifying artistically its "aura" divine ?


The hieroglyphs of this temple will still amaze us and can be that they we shall reveal their mysteries one day !



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