Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Western Cemetery of Giza : Mastaba 2100



Mastaba 2100

Name of owner

Who is the owner of this mastaba ?

The name of the owner does not appear on the reliefs of this mastaba.

Human rests were however found : some belong to a woman, others to a man.

The rests belonging to a woman are the most numerous and favor the "woman" 
thesis.

The results of analyses are not definitive and would require new analyses.

Therefore, in view of the "woman" 
thesis which seems to have been held : this mastaba was assigned (until new order) to Sedit.

Another argument which sits this thesis are the inscriptions on the mastaba of 
Merib (son of Sedit) - this mastaba being attached to the mastaba G 2100-1.

Sedit -> Sdjt (?)
woman


detail of plan of Cemetery, adapted from Reisner GIZA Necropolis I, map 5 - drawing by Roth Bigio


Titles & Inscriptions

We have no further information about her, except her appearances of the chapel of her son :

mwt⸗f -> his mother (in G 2100-1)

ḥm(t)-nṯr Nt mḥtt ỉnbw -> priestess of Neith, north of the wall (in G 2100-1)

zȝt nswt nt ẖt⸗f -> king’s daughter of his body (in G 2100-1)


Family links

Sedit is not only considered as being contemporary of Khoufou but especially she is considered as a daughter of Khoufou.

She been able to be late born during the reign of his father and to be of this fact contemporary probably of her two successors either to be born before the beginning of her reign and in this case was hardly able to survive him.


Mother of Merib 1.

1 to note that Merib can be considered as royal grandson.


Dating Mastaba

This mastaba did not undergo reorganizations in its chapel - what is not the case of the other mastabas of the same sector.

One of the features of this mastaba is the well T-shaped shaft "A", a "archaic" feature appropriate to the  "nucleus" cemetery.

If we add the features described below (Architecture - Mastaba), it was built (and probably fitted out) under the reign of Khoufou.


Architecture

Mastaba

Mastaba of type 2a 2 according to the typology of the Egyptologist Reisner - core mastaba, uncased.

It is attached (on its southern side) to the mastaba of Merib.

Dimensions of the mastaba : 21,6 m * 12 m = 259 sq.m for a height of 3 m.

There is a empty emplacement for slab-stela towards south end of east face (it was not found !).

This mastaba contains no north niche.

Shafts

It consists of four shafts ("A" (2,05 m * 2,1 m : -7.8 m in rock), "D" (1 m * 1 m : -9,12 m ends at rock), "E"(1,3 m * 1,3 m : -2,9 m in rock ), "F" (1,6 m * 1,2 m : -4 m ends at rock)).

Some finds in shafts :
"A"
- more alabaster model
- human bones
- flint

"D"
- fragmentary (alabaster) jar
- bowls

"F"
- fragments of Dynasty 4 ceramics
- wares
- vases
- dishes
- flints

To note that originally, only the well "A" shaft was built : three others were later added.

Shafts "D", "E" and "F" have no chamber - Shafts of type 7x 2.

Shaft "A" has one chamber of type 1cl 2.

His dimensions : 3,55 m * 3,45 m = 12,24 sq.m for a height of 3 m.

A interesting detail : a system of blocking for this shaft :

After Giza Mastabas 8.1 Fig. 3.27. Plan and section of g 2100


Chapel

Some traces of an exterior crude brick chapel (only North East corner preserved), apparently of type 1a 2. 

After Giza Mastabas 8.1 Fig. 3.1. Plan and section of the Merib family complex 


2 for more informations on the types of Mastabas and additions, Reisner GN 1


Bibliography


- M. BAUD « Famille royale et pouvoir sous l'ancien empire » tome 1 (p 40), tome 2 (p 579)
- Reisner GN 1
- Peter Der Manuelian « Mastaba of Nucleus Cemetery 2100 part 1 »

Useful link : 3D Giza Project



If you loved this article and if you wish to support this project, not to hesitate to download HIERO on the MacApp Store.